名词性从句用法详解

名词性从句用法详解

一、概说

名词性从句,即指性质相当于名词的从句,它包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。从高考的考查的实际情况来看,名词性从句考得最多的是宾语从句,其次是主语从句,再次是表语从句,而同位语从句则很少考查。

二、名词性从句的一般引导词

1. 连接词 that 只起连接作用,没有任何意思,也不充当句子成分,在宾语从句中可省略,但引导其他名词性从句时通常不省略。如:

I hope (that) you enjoy your holiday. 希望你假期过得好。

That he likes you is very obvious. 很显然他喜欢你。

2. 连接词 whether 也不充当句子成分,但有自己的意思,表示“是否”;引导宾语从句时,可换成 if ,但引导其他名词性从句时不能换成 if 。如:

He asked whether [if] I would show him the way. 他问我是否可以给他带路。

Whether it will do us harm remains to be seen. 是否对我们有害还要看一看。(引导主语从句,不能用 if 代替 whether)

3. 连接代词 who(m), whose, which, what 等,均有各自的意义,在从句中作主语、宾语、定语等。如:

That’s why she wanted to leave. 这就是她想离开的原因。

When we arrive doesn't matter. 什么时候到没有关系。

Tell me which one you like best. 告诉我你最喜欢哪一个。

4. 连接副词 when, where, why, how 等,也各自有自己的意义,在从句中作状语。如: The question is how we should carry out the plan. 问题是怎样执行这个计划。

When she’ll be back depends much on the weather. 她什么时候回来在很大程度上要看天气。 Why he did it will remain a puzzle forever. 他为什么这样做将永远是一个谜。

三、名词性从句的重要引导词

1. what 用于引导名词性从句是一个十分重要的引导词,它可引导主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句,但不用于引导同位语从句。它引导的名词性从句有两个意思是:一是表示“什么”,带有疑问意味;二是表示“…所…的”,相当于一个先行词后接一个关系代词。如: I don’t know what you want. 我不知道你想要什么。

I don’t know what you want is this. 我不知道你所想要的是这个。

2. what 引导名词性从句时可用作限定词,其后修饰名词。如:

I gave him what books I had. 我把我所有的书都给他了。

He gave me what money he had about him. 他把身边带有的钱全给了我。

注:what 后的名词可以是复数名词或不可数名词,但通常不能是单数可数名词,并且后接不可数名词时,有时可有little 修饰,两者的区别是:what+不可数名词=所有的都,what little+不可数名词=虽少但全部。如:

What friends she has are out of the country. 她有的那些朋友全在国外。

We gave him what (little) help we could. 我们给了他我们力所能及的帮助。

关系型 what 引导名词性从句的五种用法

一、用法归纳

1. 表示“……的东西或事情”:

They’ve done what they can to help her. 他们已经尽力帮助了她。

He saves what he earns. 他赚多少,积蓄多少。

What Mary is is the secretary. 玛丽的职务是秘书。

2. 表示“……的人或的样子”:

He is no longer what he was. 他已经不是以前的那个样子。

He is what is generally called a traitor. 他就是人们通常所说的叛徒。

Who is it that has made Fred what he is now? 是谁把弗雷德培养成现在这个样子的?

3. 表示“……的数量或数目”:

Our income is now double what it was ten years ago. 我们现在的收入是10年前的两倍。

The number of the students in our school is ten times what it was before liberation. 现在我校学生的数量是解放前的10倍。

4. 表示“……的时间”:

After what seemed like hours he came out with a bitter smile. 似乎过了几个小时他才苦笑着出来。

The young girl was too frightened to speak, standing there for what seemed like hours. 小女孩吓得不敢说话,在那儿站了几个小时。

5. 表示“……的地方”:

This is what they call Salt Lake City. 这就是他们称为盐湖城的地方。

In 1492, Columbus reached what is now called America. 1492年哥伦布到达了现在所称的美洲大陆

学习名词性从句的应注意的关键点

1. 备考主语从句应注意以下三点

一是从句作主语,主句谓语动词用第三人称单数;

二是主语从句通常用it 作形式主语,尤其是在It is +名词 / 形容词 / 过去分词+that…中,或在It seems / happens that…中,或疑问句中;

三要注意由what, whatever, whoever引导的主语从句一般不用形式主语。

2. 备考宾语从句应注意以下四点

一是介词后(except等除外) 一般不跟that 引导的宾语从句,但可接疑问词引导的宾语从句; 二是在that 引导的宾语从句后若还有补语时,要用it 作形式宾语,而将that 从句置于补语之后;

三是当主句谓语动词是think, believe, suppose, expect, imagine等时,若宾语从句要表示否定意义,往往要通过否主句来实现,即所谓否定转移;

四是虽然引导宾语从句的that 有时可以省略,但若宾语从句前有插入语或有间接宾语时,that 不能省略;that 在与之并列的另一个宾语从句之后或者在“形式宾语it+宾补”之后时也不能省略;that 从句单独回答问题时,that 也不能省略。

3. 备考表语从句应注意以下三点

一是除that, whether和疑问词外,as, as if, as though, because也可引导表语从句; 二要注意“that’s why+结果”以及“that’s because+原因”的区别;

三是注意the reason (why / for…) is that…句式。

4. 备考同位语从句应注意以下三点

一是同位语从句多在news, order, word (=news / order), idea, hope, suggestion, information, plan, thought, doubt, fear, belief等抽象名词后,说明其具体内容;

二是同位语从句与所说明的名词有时会被谓语所分开,做题时需注意;

三是引导同位语从句的有that, whether和连接副词when, where, why, how等,但绝大多数由that 引导,注意同位语从句不能用which 引导。

that 与what 引导名词性从句的区别

that 引导名词性从句只起连接作用,在从句中不作任何成分,无意义,在宾语从句通常省略,但在主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中均不能省略;what 除引导从句外,还在从句中作成分,意为“所„„的(东西) ”,在含义上等于“名词+that”。如:

1. 用that 的例子

That she lacks experience is obvious. 她缺少经验,这是显然的。

The police learned that he wasn’t there at that time. 警察获知他那时不在场。 He realized that she too was exhausted. 他意识到她也精疲力尽。

My idea is that you shouldn’t have left the country. 我的意见是你不应该离开那个国家。

Bob has the mistaken idea that tomorrow is a holiday. 鲍勃错误地认为明天是一个假日。

It was quite plain that he didn’t want to come. 很明显他不想来。

It is natural that they should have different views. 他们看法不同是很自然的。

2. 用what 的例子

What (=The thing that) he said was true. 他所讲的是事实。

What he had hoped at last came true. 他希望的事终于成为现实。

What he said is beneath contempt. 他说的话不值一理。

What he says is true, possibly. 或许他说的是对的。

What she saw gave her a fright. 她看到的情况吓了她一跳。

What I want to say is this. 我想说的是这一点。

I ’m sorry for what I said. 我为我说的话表示歉意。

That ’s what I want to know. 这是我想知道的。

You had better hear what I have to say. 你最好听听我的意见。

I managed to get what I wanted. 我设法得到了我要的东西。

It was what he meant rather than what he said. 这是他的原意而不是他的原话。 There ’s something in what he says. 他的话有些道理。

Her interest was roused by what he said. 他的话引起了她的兴趣。

He was always conscious of the fact that she did not approve of what he was doing. 他一向清楚她不太赞成他的做法。

注:that 可引导同位语从句,what 不能。如:

Have you any idea what time it starts? 你知道什么时候开始吗?

whatever, whoever, whichever引导名词性从句

1. whatever引导的名词性从句

Whatever 的意思是“所„的一切事或东西”,可视为what 的强调说法,其含义大致相当于anything that,whatever 在从句中可用作主语、宾语、定语:

Whatever he did was right. 无论他做什么都是对的。

Give them whatever they desire. 他们想要什么就给他们什么。

I will just say whatever comes into my mind. 我想到什么就说什么。

Goats eat whatever (food) they can find. 山羊找到什么(食物) 就吃什么(食物) 。

I ’m going to learn whatever my tutor wishes. 我将学习任何我的导师愿意我学的东西。 He does whatever she asks him to do. 她要他做什么,他就做什么。

Talk to me about whatever is troubling you. 给我谈谈任何使你烦恼的事。 One should stick to whatever one has begun. 开始了的事就要坚持下去。

She would tell him whatever news she got. 她得到的任何消息都会告诉他。 You can have whatever allowance you like. 你想要多少津贴就给你多少津贴。

2. whoever引导的名词性从句

whoever 的意思“任何„的人”,在意义上大致相当于 anybody who 。whoever 在从句中可用作主语或宾语:

I ’ll take whoever wants to go. 谁想去我就带谁去。

She can marry whoever she chooses. 她愿意嫁谁就嫁谁。

Whoever wants the book may have it. 任何人要这书都可拿去。

Whoever comes will be welcome. 谁来都欢迎。

Whoever you invite will be welcome. 任何你邀请的人都欢迎。

Whoever breaks this law deserves a fine. 违反本法者应予以罚款。

I ’ll give the ticket to whoever wants it. 请想要这票,我就把它给谁。

【注意】

(1) whoever 既用作主格也用作宾语(作宾语时不宜用whomever ,因为在现代英语中whomever 已几乎不用) 。

(2) 注意以下受汉语意思影响而弄错的句子:

误:Who wins can get a prize. / Anyone wins can get a prize.

正:Whoever wins can get a prize. / Anyone who wins can a prize. 谁赢了都可以获奖。

whatever 与no matter what

有这样一道题:

It is generally considered unwise to give a child __________ her or she wants.

A. whatever B. no matter what C. whenever D. no matter when

此题应选 A。容易误选B 。选项C 、D 显然是错的,因为句中的 wants 缺宾语,而C 、D 两项不能作宾语。至于C 、D 的区别,可这样描述:no matter what 只能引导状语从句,而不引导名词性从句。而 whatever 既可引导名词性从句(=anything that),也可引导状语从句(=no matter what):

1. 引导名词性从句(只用whatever) :

无论他做什么都是对的。

正:Whatever he did was right.

误:No matter what he did was right.

无论他说什么似乎都有道理。

正:Whatever he says sounds reasonable.

误:No matter what he says sounds reasonable.

山羊找到什么就吃什么。

正:Goats eat whatever they find.

误:Goats eat no matter what they find.

2. 引导状语从句(两者可换用) :

无论你说什么,我都不会相信你。

正:Whatever you say,I won’t believe you.

正:No matter what you say,I won’t believe you.

无论发生什么,都要保持镇定。

正:Keep calm,whatever happens.

正:Keep calm,no matter what happens.

whether 和if 引导名词性从句的区别

两者均可用于及物动词后引导宾语从句,表示“是否”,常可互换。但除此(用于动词后引导宾语从句) 之外,在其他情况下表示“是否”时,通常要用 whether 而不用 if,如用于引导主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、让步状语从句、与or 连用分别引导两个分句等,或用于不定式前、用于介词后、直接与 or not 连用等等。如:

Ask him whether [if] he can come. 问他能不能来。

The question is whether he can do it. 问题是他能不能做。

Answer my question whether you can help him. 回答我你是否能帮助他。

It depends on whether the letter arrives in time. 这取决于信是否来得及时。 注:在某些动词后(如 discuss 等) 通常只用 whether。如:

We discussed whether we should hold a meeting. 我们讨论了是否要开一个会。

名词性从句用法详解

一、概说

名词性从句,即指性质相当于名词的从句,它包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。从高考的考查的实际情况来看,名词性从句考得最多的是宾语从句,其次是主语从句,再次是表语从句,而同位语从句则很少考查。

二、名词性从句的一般引导词

1. 连接词 that 只起连接作用,没有任何意思,也不充当句子成分,在宾语从句中可省略,但引导其他名词性从句时通常不省略。如:

I hope (that) you enjoy your holiday. 希望你假期过得好。

That he likes you is very obvious. 很显然他喜欢你。

2. 连接词 whether 也不充当句子成分,但有自己的意思,表示“是否”;引导宾语从句时,可换成 if ,但引导其他名词性从句时不能换成 if 。如:

He asked whether [if] I would show him the way. 他问我是否可以给他带路。

Whether it will do us harm remains to be seen. 是否对我们有害还要看一看。(引导主语从句,不能用 if 代替 whether)

3. 连接代词 who(m), whose, which, what 等,均有各自的意义,在从句中作主语、宾语、定语等。如:

That’s why she wanted to leave. 这就是她想离开的原因。

When we arrive doesn't matter. 什么时候到没有关系。

Tell me which one you like best. 告诉我你最喜欢哪一个。

4. 连接副词 when, where, why, how 等,也各自有自己的意义,在从句中作状语。如: The question is how we should carry out the plan. 问题是怎样执行这个计划。

When she’ll be back depends much on the weather. 她什么时候回来在很大程度上要看天气。 Why he did it will remain a puzzle forever. 他为什么这样做将永远是一个谜。

三、名词性从句的重要引导词

1. what 用于引导名词性从句是一个十分重要的引导词,它可引导主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句,但不用于引导同位语从句。它引导的名词性从句有两个意思是:一是表示“什么”,带有疑问意味;二是表示“…所…的”,相当于一个先行词后接一个关系代词。如: I don’t know what you want. 我不知道你想要什么。

I don’t know what you want is this. 我不知道你所想要的是这个。

2. what 引导名词性从句时可用作限定词,其后修饰名词。如:

I gave him what books I had. 我把我所有的书都给他了。

He gave me what money he had about him. 他把身边带有的钱全给了我。

注:what 后的名词可以是复数名词或不可数名词,但通常不能是单数可数名词,并且后接不可数名词时,有时可有little 修饰,两者的区别是:what+不可数名词=所有的都,what little+不可数名词=虽少但全部。如:

What friends she has are out of the country. 她有的那些朋友全在国外。

We gave him what (little) help we could. 我们给了他我们力所能及的帮助。

关系型 what 引导名词性从句的五种用法

一、用法归纳

1. 表示“……的东西或事情”:

They’ve done what they can to help her. 他们已经尽力帮助了她。

He saves what he earns. 他赚多少,积蓄多少。

What Mary is is the secretary. 玛丽的职务是秘书。

2. 表示“……的人或的样子”:

He is no longer what he was. 他已经不是以前的那个样子。

He is what is generally called a traitor. 他就是人们通常所说的叛徒。

Who is it that has made Fred what he is now? 是谁把弗雷德培养成现在这个样子的?

3. 表示“……的数量或数目”:

Our income is now double what it was ten years ago. 我们现在的收入是10年前的两倍。

The number of the students in our school is ten times what it was before liberation. 现在我校学生的数量是解放前的10倍。

4. 表示“……的时间”:

After what seemed like hours he came out with a bitter smile. 似乎过了几个小时他才苦笑着出来。

The young girl was too frightened to speak, standing there for what seemed like hours. 小女孩吓得不敢说话,在那儿站了几个小时。

5. 表示“……的地方”:

This is what they call Salt Lake City. 这就是他们称为盐湖城的地方。

In 1492, Columbus reached what is now called America. 1492年哥伦布到达了现在所称的美洲大陆

学习名词性从句的应注意的关键点

1. 备考主语从句应注意以下三点

一是从句作主语,主句谓语动词用第三人称单数;

二是主语从句通常用it 作形式主语,尤其是在It is +名词 / 形容词 / 过去分词+that…中,或在It seems / happens that…中,或疑问句中;

三要注意由what, whatever, whoever引导的主语从句一般不用形式主语。

2. 备考宾语从句应注意以下四点

一是介词后(except等除外) 一般不跟that 引导的宾语从句,但可接疑问词引导的宾语从句; 二是在that 引导的宾语从句后若还有补语时,要用it 作形式宾语,而将that 从句置于补语之后;

三是当主句谓语动词是think, believe, suppose, expect, imagine等时,若宾语从句要表示否定意义,往往要通过否主句来实现,即所谓否定转移;

四是虽然引导宾语从句的that 有时可以省略,但若宾语从句前有插入语或有间接宾语时,that 不能省略;that 在与之并列的另一个宾语从句之后或者在“形式宾语it+宾补”之后时也不能省略;that 从句单独回答问题时,that 也不能省略。

3. 备考表语从句应注意以下三点

一是除that, whether和疑问词外,as, as if, as though, because也可引导表语从句; 二要注意“that’s why+结果”以及“that’s because+原因”的区别;

三是注意the reason (why / for…) is that…句式。

4. 备考同位语从句应注意以下三点

一是同位语从句多在news, order, word (=news / order), idea, hope, suggestion, information, plan, thought, doubt, fear, belief等抽象名词后,说明其具体内容;

二是同位语从句与所说明的名词有时会被谓语所分开,做题时需注意;

三是引导同位语从句的有that, whether和连接副词when, where, why, how等,但绝大多数由that 引导,注意同位语从句不能用which 引导。

that 与what 引导名词性从句的区别

that 引导名词性从句只起连接作用,在从句中不作任何成分,无意义,在宾语从句通常省略,但在主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中均不能省略;what 除引导从句外,还在从句中作成分,意为“所„„的(东西) ”,在含义上等于“名词+that”。如:

1. 用that 的例子

That she lacks experience is obvious. 她缺少经验,这是显然的。

The police learned that he wasn’t there at that time. 警察获知他那时不在场。 He realized that she too was exhausted. 他意识到她也精疲力尽。

My idea is that you shouldn’t have left the country. 我的意见是你不应该离开那个国家。

Bob has the mistaken idea that tomorrow is a holiday. 鲍勃错误地认为明天是一个假日。

It was quite plain that he didn’t want to come. 很明显他不想来。

It is natural that they should have different views. 他们看法不同是很自然的。

2. 用what 的例子

What (=The thing that) he said was true. 他所讲的是事实。

What he had hoped at last came true. 他希望的事终于成为现实。

What he said is beneath contempt. 他说的话不值一理。

What he says is true, possibly. 或许他说的是对的。

What she saw gave her a fright. 她看到的情况吓了她一跳。

What I want to say is this. 我想说的是这一点。

I ’m sorry for what I said. 我为我说的话表示歉意。

That ’s what I want to know. 这是我想知道的。

You had better hear what I have to say. 你最好听听我的意见。

I managed to get what I wanted. 我设法得到了我要的东西。

It was what he meant rather than what he said. 这是他的原意而不是他的原话。 There ’s something in what he says. 他的话有些道理。

Her interest was roused by what he said. 他的话引起了她的兴趣。

He was always conscious of the fact that she did not approve of what he was doing. 他一向清楚她不太赞成他的做法。

注:that 可引导同位语从句,what 不能。如:

Have you any idea what time it starts? 你知道什么时候开始吗?

whatever, whoever, whichever引导名词性从句

1. whatever引导的名词性从句

Whatever 的意思是“所„的一切事或东西”,可视为what 的强调说法,其含义大致相当于anything that,whatever 在从句中可用作主语、宾语、定语:

Whatever he did was right. 无论他做什么都是对的。

Give them whatever they desire. 他们想要什么就给他们什么。

I will just say whatever comes into my mind. 我想到什么就说什么。

Goats eat whatever (food) they can find. 山羊找到什么(食物) 就吃什么(食物) 。

I ’m going to learn whatever my tutor wishes. 我将学习任何我的导师愿意我学的东西。 He does whatever she asks him to do. 她要他做什么,他就做什么。

Talk to me about whatever is troubling you. 给我谈谈任何使你烦恼的事。 One should stick to whatever one has begun. 开始了的事就要坚持下去。

She would tell him whatever news she got. 她得到的任何消息都会告诉他。 You can have whatever allowance you like. 你想要多少津贴就给你多少津贴。

2. whoever引导的名词性从句

whoever 的意思“任何„的人”,在意义上大致相当于 anybody who 。whoever 在从句中可用作主语或宾语:

I ’ll take whoever wants to go. 谁想去我就带谁去。

She can marry whoever she chooses. 她愿意嫁谁就嫁谁。

Whoever wants the book may have it. 任何人要这书都可拿去。

Whoever comes will be welcome. 谁来都欢迎。

Whoever you invite will be welcome. 任何你邀请的人都欢迎。

Whoever breaks this law deserves a fine. 违反本法者应予以罚款。

I ’ll give the ticket to whoever wants it. 请想要这票,我就把它给谁。

【注意】

(1) whoever 既用作主格也用作宾语(作宾语时不宜用whomever ,因为在现代英语中whomever 已几乎不用) 。

(2) 注意以下受汉语意思影响而弄错的句子:

误:Who wins can get a prize. / Anyone wins can get a prize.

正:Whoever wins can get a prize. / Anyone who wins can a prize. 谁赢了都可以获奖。

whatever 与no matter what

有这样一道题:

It is generally considered unwise to give a child __________ her or she wants.

A. whatever B. no matter what C. whenever D. no matter when

此题应选 A。容易误选B 。选项C 、D 显然是错的,因为句中的 wants 缺宾语,而C 、D 两项不能作宾语。至于C 、D 的区别,可这样描述:no matter what 只能引导状语从句,而不引导名词性从句。而 whatever 既可引导名词性从句(=anything that),也可引导状语从句(=no matter what):

1. 引导名词性从句(只用whatever) :

无论他做什么都是对的。

正:Whatever he did was right.

误:No matter what he did was right.

无论他说什么似乎都有道理。

正:Whatever he says sounds reasonable.

误:No matter what he says sounds reasonable.

山羊找到什么就吃什么。

正:Goats eat whatever they find.

误:Goats eat no matter what they find.

2. 引导状语从句(两者可换用) :

无论你说什么,我都不会相信你。

正:Whatever you say,I won’t believe you.

正:No matter what you say,I won’t believe you.

无论发生什么,都要保持镇定。

正:Keep calm,whatever happens.

正:Keep calm,no matter what happens.

whether 和if 引导名词性从句的区别

两者均可用于及物动词后引导宾语从句,表示“是否”,常可互换。但除此(用于动词后引导宾语从句) 之外,在其他情况下表示“是否”时,通常要用 whether 而不用 if,如用于引导主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、让步状语从句、与or 连用分别引导两个分句等,或用于不定式前、用于介词后、直接与 or not 连用等等。如:

Ask him whether [if] he can come. 问他能不能来。

The question is whether he can do it. 问题是他能不能做。

Answer my question whether you can help him. 回答我你是否能帮助他。

It depends on whether the letter arrives in time. 这取决于信是否来得及时。 注:在某些动词后(如 discuss 等) 通常只用 whether。如:

We discussed whether we should hold a meeting. 我们讨论了是否要开一个会。


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